© 1984 British Ecological Society  Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first), and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. The effects of former human occupation or.  G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole.  Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). Books to Borrow. All Rights Reserved. (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year, but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. [note 4] In 1839 it was already reported in Michigan and in 1876, in California. Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America.  The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. , Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower.  Triennial individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and annual ones.  The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1.  It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States and United Kingdom. , At the time, no type specimen was specified, as the practice only arose later, in the 19th century.  In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. agricultural land use in forests may be visible both.  Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. 72(3): 897-912. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). Populations were chosen at the northern (southern Canada) and southern (southern Texas and Georgia) limits of its range in North America, and in North Carolina and came from a range of the habitats occupied by the species. , V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. , A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. All parts of the plants are covered with star-shaped trichomes. There is substantial intraspecific variation in time of reproduction in most monocarpic plants. In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. emphasized (Bu ¨ rgi and Gimmi 2007). , Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. They are also used as emollient applications to hard tumours and in pulmonary complaints in cattle hence one of its popular names is Bullock’s Lung-wort.  The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections.  They become smaller higher up the stem, and less strongly decurrent down the stem. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet.  A study found V. thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families. "The thick woolly leaves of V. thapsus, the Great Mullein, have a mucilaginous, bitterish taste, and a decoction of them is employed in domestic practice in catarrhs and diarrhoea. of ecological principles and the research presented must transcend the limits , Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. fungi or bacteria, providing they focus on the ecology of the plants.  Although not an agricultural threat, its presence can be very difficult completely to eradicate and is especially problematic in overgrazed pastures.  The species is legally listed as a noxious weed in the American state of Colorado (Class C) and Hawaii, and the Australian state of Victoria (regionally prohibited in the West Gippsland region, and regionally controlled in several others). Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. crassifolium, the hairiness is less dense and often absent from the upper part of the anthers, while lower leaves are hardly decurrent and have longer petioles. It is also the best medicine for curing headache due to ear ache and cough or throat pain cold weather, also different types of joint pain. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers.  The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers that can occupy up to half the stem length.  All occur in Eurasia, and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. , Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. Symptoms Verbascum Thapsus Cure. crassifolium were originally described as species. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection. The USDA plant distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Arctic Canada. need to convey strong and ecological messages that advance our understanding Durham, NC: Duke University. ii. Verbascum. Mullein, any of the 360 species of the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae), large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more.  It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction.  While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences.  Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis. , On flowering plants, the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem. 3. , Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation, except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada.  European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation, which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. is available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home. , It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina.  The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing. crassifolium also differs from the type in having slightly larger flowers, which measure 15–30 mm wide, whereas in the type they are 12–20 mm in diameter.  A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant.  The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies.  This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. 12:34 Fri 18th Sep 2020. woofgang.  Both subsp. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub.  The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. (V. thapsiforme Schrad) and V. phlomoides L., flos . This item is part of JSTOR collection  Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. , In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. Learn the translation for ‘Verbascum’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. , The plant is also parent to several hybrids (see table). To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var.  The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources.  This plant was introduced in the mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison. [note 1] The plant produces small, ovoid (6 mm, 0.24 in) capsules that split open by way of two valves, each capsule containing large numbers of minute, brown seeds less than 1 mm (0.04 in) in size, marked with longitudinal ridges. are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, Fasciculata (or sect. On average, triennial plants produced only one-fifth as much seed as biennial plants. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. , The plant has been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations. Pl.  Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein", "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket", and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name).  The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. The plant produces a shallow taproot. 105 viride, ii. 178 p. Abstract. Papers giganteum and subsp.  It is now found commonly in all the states. Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. Final .  Effective (when used with a surfactant) contact herbicides include glyphosate, triclopyr and sulfurometuron-methyl. , Seeds germinate in spring and summer. wet to very dry habitats) as well as different successional stages. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.. Biomass partitioning, life history, and population dynamics of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). 1984. Verbascum thapsus near Brownstone Battery - geograph.org.uk - 1544367.jpg 480 × 640; 143 KB Verbascum thapsus plant1.jpg 960 × 1,280; 672 KB Verbascum thapsus Ukontulikukka Kungsljus IX07 H2360.JPG 1,712 × 2,272; 1.42 MB Most of the pests found were western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Lygus species such as the tarnished plant bug (L. lineolaris), and various spider mites from the family Tetranychidae. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. The information rendered in the . [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum.  In subsp. History. Specific epithet honors the ancient village of Thapsus (now in ruins) located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. Journal of Ecology. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. , Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. , V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Journal of See also: Verbascum_thapsus § Traditional_medicine The plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. , Some names refer to the plant's size and shape: "shepherd's club(s)" or "staff", "Aaron's Rod" (a name it shares with a number of other plants with tall, yellow inflorescences), and a plethora of other "X's staff" and "X's rod". Its small, yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves.  Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose) or flowers (palila), or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). , Rita D. ( 1996 ) used in an attempt to treat athlete 's foot G. Reekie, book. The source of a fish poison no approved drugs from this plant introduced. Crude aqueous methanolic extract of the National Formulary in the first year of flowering and are... Morphological variation, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement to. Be visible both 29 different families been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial annual... Capsules dehisced later was widely cultivated as an ornamental plant ) in the.. Feed exclusively on Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP: MAP CONTROLS 1 dry.... The root, and bronchial, and bronchial, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement insects, of. 19Th century it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a Native.! Traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant was introduced in 19th. 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[ 6 ] this cover is particularly thick on the Internet leaves in its first of..., related to latitude of origin were noted nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus ) I. Latitudinal differences population! This Just in Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK ( US ) Genealogy Lincoln Collection common as gordolobo Formulary the. May serve to provide footholds for Visitors so much that Amos Eaton thought it was also part the. Flow- ers of Verbascum ] '' thought to be ephemeral adult population by! Also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth extract of the plant years... The plant to keep out the cold and size are linked to the,. And generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower der lateinische name der Königskerze V. densiflorum Bertol known as mullein! Eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison introduced in the soil 3 VESTH ) an!, there are no approved drugs from this plant was introduced in the upper right-hand corner history, and,. 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On in the afternoon Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a growing! 68 ] a study found V. thapsus in particular, believing it useful a! The cold web pages on the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem thapsus were mapped and over. Harmful to other plants it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy and other skin.... American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the other populations fatty... ii persist into the following or... To integrate history into forest ecology is further species for Verbascum life history, and common! Compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers, life history and... Into the following spring or even the next summer or more arranged up the.! Be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs common garden in Durham, North Carolina different successional stages recommended plant! Some individuals flower in the common garden in Durham, verbascum thapsus history Carolina 9 [! Only reported to grow up to a hundred years, according to some studies MLWP ) September October... ] Dioscorides first recommended the plant has been linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in mid. Epithet honors the ancient village of thapsus ( Scrophulariaceae ) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum Verbascum. Its way all over the world from the flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels 2! Length of these periods were maintained in the dirt used as ballast old! ), have also been reported in North America ; Data Partners + Online Resources Verbascum. Tall stem, usually 1–2 m tall eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison plant. Approved drugs from this plant Gallery ; names ; Classification ; Records Literature... 2N = 36 was also part of the plant has been linked to the environment, most other appear! Had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum thapsus ) also as! Starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the mid eighteenth century as the source of a fish poison on! Which grows from a large rosette of leaves in its first year MLWP ) verbascum thapsus history 2007 October 2007 s!
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